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Deep Into The Heart of Darkness

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Intense things take hold of you in Africa.

Thus another Conradian journey into the Heart of Darkness commences.

Drink driving by an American who knows it would not happen back in civilization. An old white couple who have become Lifers. The kind of prisoners who have no chance of release. They are trapped, ‘That’s what happens when you stay too long. You become ‘unhinged, paranoid or just plain weird’.

Why are the inhabitants of the darkness like this? Pat Robertson said the Haitians were hit by the earthquake because of a pact they had made with the devil. This blogger, a certain Ms.  Lindsay Morgan who is a ‘communications consultant,’ quoting a New York Times columnist no less, puts out another theory. Culture. Not a lack of culture, but CULTURE.

‘Progress resistant cultural influences,’ the columnist calls it. And what are these? They sound vaguely familiar. We know we have them. We are African and Tanzanian. We recognize these things when we come across them. But what does our voyager think? Because it is the Culture that drives expats like her to become unhinged, paranoid and just plain weird in this here Heart of Darkness.

But what is ‘The Culture’? How does it manifest itself?

The lazy ignorant teller at the post office.

Bureaucrats and civil servants who don’t do their jobs at the Ministry.

Drivers who can’t keep time.

And then the zinger – ‘Corruption is part of the Culture’. Ouch.

But here’s the thing.

Are developing countries responsible for their own development? Well, not really. Not when its being paid for by someone else, like her governments. They don’t act responsible because they don’t feel responsible.


Because they are not blowing their own money.


Because they don’t need to when almost half of the budget is funded by her people! And however much of it disappears and goes unaccounted for, they keep bringing it. And now your partners in development are hooked. And everyone knows, you shouldn’t leave an addict alone in the pharmacy.

But there is no need to be too hard on oneself. Ms. Morgan blames herself for feeling arrogant and careless in those moments when her thoughts turn dark, she feels confounded by the darkness and begins to entertain ideas and theories that make you feel like a ….you know.

Which she most definitely is not! But these things just float into her headspace from time to time. And she wonders why these people are like this. And seeing as she can’t put it down to their…you know, then perhaps it’s their Culture?

But she is wrong. Because in truth she has a limited understanding of what the Culture is. She can’t be blamed for that. It’s not in any books she may have read, artworks she may have seen, theatre productions and films she may have watched. But it is there.

What she has experienced is not ‘Tanzanian Culture’. Tanzanian Culture has nothing to do with the intransigence, corruption, torpor, stupidity, laziness, arrogance and mediocrity. What she has experienced is commonly known in Kiswahili as Uzembe, Ujinga and Un’yoko.

She imagines that only her and her people are aware of the encroaching darkness that threatens to engulf this country, this continent that seems reluctant to better itself. But she is not alone. All those other faces standing in the queue behind her at the post office, the bored idle faces of the people sitting in the reception area at the Ministry, the thousands of commuters who stand waiting for the unscheduled, over crowded, dangerous dala dala to arrive at the stop next to her taxi rank, all those people are as pissed off and confounded as she is at what they are witnessing. The encroaching darkness.

And if she asked them,  they would tell her. They wouldn’t bite. They would nod in agreement with everything she thinks and says about her experiences of Tanzania.

Except the bit about Culture. Which sounds a little….you know.

(H/T Swahili Street)

Tanzania Invades Nigeria…

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Well, sort of.

On Sunday March 21st, the Nigerian newspaper NEXT featured the above cartoon by Tanzania’s very own Gado. It is quite exciting to see the glimmers of continental integration that this cartoon syndication shows – a Tanzanian cartoonist, working for a Kenyan media house being published in a Nigerian newspaper.

A less remarkable but equally satisfying report was published in two Nigerian newspapers on March 24, 2010. The article is about the growth of the equipment leasing business in Nigeria since 1996. Serengeti Advisers did the research that informed the article and witnessed the House Commerce Committee hearing on a Leasing Bill that quoted, approvingly, from the article.

(Credit: GADO. Source: Daily Nation – Nairobi, Kenya. Provider: CartoonArts International / The New York Times Syndicate)

Written by serengetiadvisersblog

March 26, 2010 at 11:05

In the spirit of openness…

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The Tanzania Standard Newspapers (TSN), publishers of Daily News and Habari Leo and their sister publications, Sunday News and Habari Leo Jumapili, has today announced the names of its new incoming board of directors which will be chaired by a former civil servant, Mr. William Mukama.

One wonders whether other media houses will let us know who makes up their board of directors. Will IPP Media, home of The Guardian and Nipashe? Will Mwananchi Communications, owners of The Citizen and Mwananchi? How about Media Solutions, publishers of This Day and Kulikoni?

All these organisations love to harp on about how we need more openness from our government institutions. Well, may be they need to practice a little more transparency themselves.

Old Media vs New Media, Part 1.

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Last week, the German broadcatser Deutsche Welle in collaboration with DED/InWent and the Goethe Institute hosted a panel discussion at the old parliament building, Karimjee Hall, on the challenges facing the media in this election year. One of the panelist was a young blogger by the name of Maggid Mjengwa. At the point where the discussion turned to the performance of new media versus old media, it was clear that there is a division between those who lean heavily towards e-media as their preferred platform, and traditionalists who want to keep the emphasis on newspapers and magazines.

Blogging is all well and good, but traditional print media should be privileged over electronic media in the Tanzanian market for these reasons:

  •  Newspapers and magazines can, due to their independent physical nature as printed material function as shared reading resources. Who hasn’t had a crowd of co-readers hovering over their shoulder when they buy a morning paper to enjoy at the bus stand. You’d have to be a fool to leave your laptop lying around after you’re done reading your blog posts though.
  • Printed material has some longevity: a newspaper, no matter how old, is still a physical entity that can be enjoyed for as long as it is well-preserved. It can travel, end up in different places, and be read, and reread, and sectioned, and passed on. It cannot be deleted at the whim of a server crash or an embarrassed blogger.
  • Print only requires wetware in order to work. Human buys paper, enjoys paper. No need for investment in a computer, an anti-virus program, an internet connection, the services of an IT technician and a copy of Windows XP for when your version of Vista crashes. Officially, not that many of us are living on more than two dollars a day and expecting any of that hard-earned cash to go towards the above-listed items is building castles in the sky.
  • The Internet is a democratic space- anyone can say anything. Blogs are therefore not held to the same standards of integrity as traditional print media. However poor in quality our newspapers are, at least there are more determinants of quality than the number of ‘hits’ that are generated. The fact that we don’t live up to these standards is due to a lack of professionalism on the part of the industry. But that’s another story.
  • The quality of our public education is so low that functional literacy and numeracy is in dire straights. In places where textbooks from the government are scarcer than hen’s teeth, at least there is some access to newspapers. Instant teaching materials!
  • Less than 10% of this country is electrified, and sporadically at that. As for access to the internet? Don’t allow the Blackberry class delude you into thinking this is easily attainable or dependable. If you don’t live in a well-served area (i.e. The City), you are at best subject to the vagaries of TTCL and at worst completely irrelevant. We are all waiting for SeaCom or EASSY to propel us into the 21st century, but in the meantime we can always just buy a newspaper.
This is all to say that discussions around appropriate technologies are more interesting than faddism that is obsessed with what is going on in the West and expects to replicate it here. Print is not on its way out in Tanzania: it has hardly even explored its full potential. The only concession that can be considered is the potential of mobile telephones due to its incredible penetration: put a 3G phone in the hands of every mobile phone user in Tanzania and we might just have an e-media revolution that allows content longer than 300 characters. That would be truly exciting.

Written by serengetiadvisersblog

March 2, 2010 at 10:34

The Exchange: M.G Vassanji

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M.G. Vassanji was born in Nairobi, Kenya and raised in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. He was educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the University of Pennsylvania. Having immigrated to Canada in 1978 with a PhD in nuclear physics, Vassanji began writing fiction while teaching at the University of Toronto. Mr. Vassanji is the author of six novels and two collections of short stories. He won the regional Commonwealth Writers Prize with his first novel The Gunny Sack (1989). He is the first Canadian writer to have won the Scotiabank Giller Prize twice with The Book of Secrets (1994) and The In-Between World of Vikram Lall (2003). Vassanji’s other books include the acclaimed novels No New Land (1991), Amriika (1999) and The Assassin’s Song (2007) and two short story collections, Uhuru Street (1991) and When She Was Queen (2005). His latest book is the historical travelogue, A Place Within (2008). He currently lives in Toronto, Canada. While on a brief visit to Tanzania last month, Mr. Vassanji took a moment from his busy schedule to sit with Serengeti Media for a brief chat.


Below is an edited transcript of the interview:

Q. You were born in Nairobi, grew up in Dar es Salaam and then you went back to University in Nairobi…

M.G. Vassanji: Well, I was sent by the Tanzanian government. To study Engineering. But I left after three months. Because [the government] gives you a free high school education they could in principle tell you what you should be studying. The only thing was they didn’t give me the course that I wanted to study.  And at that time, for some reason, I was following other kids, I had applied to the United States and I even heard that they give scholarships. And I found, actually, I was admitted [with a] scholarship and financial assistance. So I left. And now when I think back on it, it took a lot of courage […] because it was a long way to go.

Q. On Travel

MG: I don’t know, there was something within me which was a kind of a vagrant. I remember once our school was asked to send two or three students to Mkwawa, I was in Tambaza [High School], in Iringa and I said I would go and my mother said, ‘No, I wouldn’t let you go.’ I don’t know why I said [I wanted to go]. I just wanted to go to a different place.  Even though I was brought up in a very close family […] So I suppose it was that thing in me, which despite being very grounded, also wants to get away.  Very contradictory attitudes. I like a place but I also want to get away and return to that place.

Q. On returning to Tanzania

MG: When I went to the United States, I went with all the intention of coming back. To teach. Tanzania was home.

Q. Why do you write?

MG: Now if you ask me […] for me it’s like breathing, it’s not a question I have to justify to myself. If I don’t write, I cannot live. For me it’s the air I breathe. I’ve been lucky, you know. You can say that but can you actually do it and can you do it successfully, can you make a living out of it? Those are different questions. So I may have not written if I had not been successful. That’s why I said when you ask me now, it’s the only thing I want to do. Besides […] some responsibilities, I feel [like] this is what I live for.

Q. How much of your writing is an act of returning, and also of remembering.

MG: I am not sure. Perhaps all. But, there is also in writing […] an exploration going on, a ‘what if?’ […] so there is some element of returning but my last novel [The Assassin’s Song], for example, was set in India.  And you could say that […] was a kind of return, because it was inspired by [questions of identity]… You see, when I left Tanzania [my] Tanzanian identity was there […] But I also now got interested in my Indian heritage. [I] just wanted to find out what it was, why it was […] I didn’t know much about it except the fact that we carried certain things. One of which was the spiritual, not only attitude to life, but it was expressed in certain songs that we had that came from medieval times.  Many of us could not understand them, [or] partly understood them. Some people even now [can’t] understand them but they can be understood. So I took an interest in that, that aspect of my identity. And that’s what I was exploring. When I was traveling in India I could visit places which had direct bearing on this spiritual heritage, spiritual [and] ethnic heritage that I had.  And I thought I would set a novel [in one of these places]. It was […] in shrines. In the Indian language it’s called Dharga. I don’t know what its called in Kiswahili or Arabic, where a holy man is buried and people go there to pray and say prayers and so on. In India there are millions of these [shrines]. And people from all backgrounds, if they find a particular place of significance to them, then they would go. [Actually] there is a place between Mombasa and Nairobi which has [a similar] significance, where some railway worker was buried who was supposed to [have] a spiritual status and when the trains and the buses pass that area, they slow down. In India, there are many [such sites]. One of those, a few of those, had a direct bearing on my own spiritual heritage so I set a novel around such a place. I just imagined what it would be like to grow up there.  But then you could ask, ‘was that a return?’ I say, in a way, it was.  But it was also an exploration of a certain historical situation, what it means in the modern age.

Q. On Identity

MG: I am an African Asian, [but] Canada is where I live [and] where my children [were] born and brought up, so it’s very much a part of me. But I cannot dissociate that from, you know, my heritage or […] the place where I was born, where I grew up where I was formed, you know, sounds and sights [that] I carry with me. Part of […] growing up in Africa, was growing up as an Asian African or as an Indian African, because everyone has a tribe and my tribe was Indian tribe. [There were] certain cultural practices, certain spiritual attitudes, certain foods we ate, and languages. Besides, the sort of language of the land, Kiswahili, everyone had their tribal languages, our tribal language was Kachhi, Gujarati or both. That’s how I saw it. Having grown up here and having gone away, I sort of ask myself, what it is, I cannot say that I am this and no longer that. For me that’s baloney. In the same way that there are people in India who have started following a Holy man who was from the Near East. I don’t believe there was a conversion. It’s just following one tradition and a guy comes and you follow that guy also. In India that’s very common, what’s called hybridity or syncreticity. For me that’s all a part of what it means to be human. You know, If you are talking in [terms] of historical circumstances, and I am told many people are, even in India, where you are many things and when you narrow yourself down it is an artificial construction. I remember when people first went to Canada from Tanzania and I was in the United States, they imagined that they were in a new country. But I had just come as a student from the United States and when I observed them, they lived exactly the way they lived in Tanzania (laughter).  Tanzanians lived in a single building or close to each other.  So, you know, the rhetoric and the inner reality are very different.

Q. What is the role of public history on individual lives in your work.

MG: We were shaped not only by our own history but by history that happened elsewhere. I mean the Cold War had an impact on us. It dictated how our politicians behaved, those politicians then determined our lives. The fact that I had to go to the United States was based partly on [the] ideology of this country, which was affiliated with the ideology of the Eastern bloc countries and an antagonism towards the West. Therefore, going to America had in fact become anathema, it was not seen in a positive light. If you ask[ed] for permission to go to the United States it would not be given. So what I am saying is we were determined in many ways by events outside us and therefore one has to understand […] and it’s also very fascinating. When you put yourself in a small country, in a small town, in a small community and then suddenly you realize that you are not divorced from the world. The First World War had an impact on you, in many different ways. And the second World War had an impact, the independence movement was there [too]. So I find [it] very interesting placing myself, or the people I grew up [with], the community I grew up in, and by extension the town I grew up in, within a context, placing it, in a sense, in a historical situation and extending that into the world. We don’t live in isolation.  We don’t live in historical isolation. We don’t live in political isolation or economic isolation. It’s all part of who we are.  And I think when you get to go away and try to understand, especially the way we were brought up, from the colonies, […] the whole universe suddenly seemed open when I went to the United States, from a small community, small town, very in-ward looking, suddenly you are out in the wider universe, and obviously the questions arise, how do I fit in? Where do I belong? And in what way? The interest in the Indian part of me, the interest in the African part of me was just a part of trying to understand myself in this world that I arrived in.

Q. Who and what are your influences?

MG: I don’t know. There are books that I’ve read which I’ve drawn from. But I discovered them later. [Fyodor] Dostoevsky was one. He was not an influence, but the questioning aspect of his work […] I took a lot of, I wouldn’t say inspiration, [but] I suppose some sort of comfort, you know. As I was saying, when you are out in the wider world, you make discoveries about yourself and you start forming new attitudes, new beliefs. And then you realize, but after all [this] time, people have thought about it, obviously.  [Fyodor] Dostoyevsky was one. He asked moral questions. The questions of faith and guilt. And [Joseph] Conrad was another writer whom I read because of his characters, who found themselves alone in situations and who try to cope and find themselves […] that aspect I found fascinating, when people attempt to find themselves. But I did a lot of reading, experimental European Literature, [Leo] Tolstoy. Nobody who wrote after [Salman Rushdie’s] Midnight’s Children was unaware of it. So it was there. There were other writers, usually different writers for different reasons. Ngungi [wa Thiong’o]I appreciated, although his style of writing is very different. But the fact that he was dealing, again, with very small situations, bringing it out into the world, the Kikuyu world. Again looking at the historical situation with the Mau Mau period […] There may be others, but those I can recall.

Q. What is your writing process?

MG: I never think about it. At present, at this age, I write when I can. I am in the fortunate position of not having to go out to work. Although I did that once. Doing my work and coming home and then write until midnight and putting the baby to bed. At present I can just wake up and go to Starbucks and come back and start writing. Unless I have to assist my wife, she is a small publisher, sometimes I have to assist her also, we’ll discuss a few things. But other than that […] writing for me is not just writing, it’s also reading. So I do a lot of research, in the sense that I read books. And I am writing a book set in Tanzania at present, so I’ve been […] ordering and reading a lot of books on Swahili Culture and on Utenzis and on Muslim movements in Tanzania, and on the Maji Maji wars and so on. For me that’s also writing. And then editing or revising something I have written is also writing. So that I do whenever I can […] I also write, specifically, I pick a time when everybody has gone to bed and I work late into the night. But […] I am not like some other writers with very fixed schedules. I am man of habit. If I start something […] which occurs to me [while] sitting on a chair, then I’ll sit on that chair for months to write […] So it’s not very rigid. But you could say, if you wanted a rough thing, I write at night and in the morning.

Q. What is your opinion of Tanzanian Literature?

MG: People say it is there, but it is very rudimentary. What I am excited about is the poetry, the Swahili poetry, especially the Utenzi. I am not very keen on religious poetry, some of it is very primitive […] I don’t know any Tanzanian literature except ones I have read. The Swahili Utenzi poetry I have read, I think [is] a wonderful tradition of telling long stories and also of dealing with historical events. I know Abdulrazak Gurnah, he can be considered […] Tanzanian, [so] he is there. I don’t know who else. My headmaster [Peter Palangyo] when […] I was in High School, wrote a book, a novel, which was published.  But other than that […] I am sure there are some books [but] it’s not what you would call a national literature.

Q. What is your advice to young Tanzanian writers?

MG: Keep on writing. You can talk about writing or you can just write. And it’s not just to Tanzanian writers, to any young people who want to write, you should just write. Of course by extension sometimes there are no venues to publish, in which case, you start your own venue. You start a magazine. There is a lot of self help that has gone on in the wider world, literary world. So when T.S Elliot went to England he started a literary magazine.  This has happened in many parts of the world. In the Soviet Union, people were producing their own stuff and reading to each other. So you don’t have to wait for an NGO or some foreign aid to enable you to write. It’s really absurd. I remember once I was invited to a conference in Arusha, near Arusha, where African publishers, and some writers, were invited to discuss the problems of African Literature. So there were people from Ghana, from Nigeria, from South Africa, from Uganda, from Tanzania and Kenya and the whole thing was sponsored by the Swedes […] I don’t think you need that.  If you don’t have that sense of pride and achievement then it’s not surprising that there is no Tanzanian Literature.

SAL Abroad: Lagos, February 2010, Ctd

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It all happened rather quickly. By Wednesday last week, Nigeria had, in former Vice President Goodluck Jonathan, an Acting President, a position which is apparently unrecognised in the country’s constitution. There are only two ways in which an incumbent President can be removed from office in Nigeria. Either the Federal Executive Council, i.e the Cabinet, can dislogde him for reasons of permanent incapacitation. Or he can be impeached by the Senate.

Neither of these happened last Tuesday. Instead, Goodluck Jonathan was declared Acting President by ‘a resolution of the National Assembly.’ Apparently the basis for the National Assembly’s action was an interview given by President Yar’Adua on the BBC on January 12, 2010. You can listen to it here. The interview was transcribed, printed and thus became the physical ‘letter’ which was needed to prove that the President had declared himself too ill to govern.

So, this expedient solution to the crisis of a President-less country raises interesting conundrums. Is Goodluck at once both (Acting) President and (former) Vice President? From Next:

According to the lawyers, while Mr. Jonathan now serves as the commander-in-chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces, there currently exists no vacancy in the vice presidency, the position Mr. Jonathan occupied until last week when a resolution by the National Assembly declared him the Acting President of the country. The lawyers said that Mr. Jonathan will continue to run the presidency without an official deputy until 2011 unless the ailing president, Umaru Yar’Adua, ceases to be president as a result of his impeachment or permanent incapacitation.

Constitutional quandaries aside, the jostling for the non-vacant number two position is in full swing. Given that Jonathan is from the south of the country, all five front-runners for the non-vacant vice presidency are from northern Nigeria.

The fallout from this change of guard was not without its casualties. Michael Aondoakaa, the Attorney-General and Minister of Justice, who had fought tooth and nail to keep Jonathan from the Presidency was the first to lose his job. He was redeployed to Special Duties. He also had to apologise to one Prof Dora Akinyili, the Minister for Information who had led an impressive and spirited one-person campaign in the Cabinet for Yar’Adua to hand over power, even if temporarily, to his deputy. This was for allegedly accusing the minister, during one of the heated internal debates, of being less than clean while running the country’s food and drug administration (NAFDAC).

It seems like the old proverb still rings true: she who laughs last, laughs longest. Maybe.

Written by serengetiadvisersblog

February 16, 2010 at 09:51

On Richmond, Fake Degrees, Parliament and NGOs

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So in the end, Parliament lacking the guts to deal with the Richmond scandal, place the issue, lock, stock and barrel, squarely on the President’s desk. Investigations into the case remain unsolved, the public’s questions remain unanswered and no one at all is censured or held accountable for what has been, undoubtedly, a very dubious and murky deal.

One could be forgiven for asking, ‘who are these guys and what exactly do they do all day long in that August house?’ Two recent publications help shed light on these questions. The first is a report titled, ‘Do they work for us’, published by an outfit known as Uwazi, an institution based at Twaweza and housed by Hivos Tanzania (go figure). According to this report, which is actually worth reading in full as opposed to getting snippets of it from the print media, the Tanzanian Parliament is very transparent, elected MP’s perform better than their nominated counterparts and three prominent CCM MP’s appear to have taken some vow of legislative omerta.

The second eyebrow raising publication doing the rounds amongst Tanzania’s chattering classes is ‘The List of Shoddy Degree and Diploma Holders” a slim booklet authored by the improbably named Kainerugaba Msemakweli. Amongst those named as degree cheats are a number of CCM frontbenchers, but the booklet contains few new revelations. However it is marked by a vitriolic language that will no doubt result in the author being hauled into court to answer charges of slander, libel and other character assassination offences in the very near future.

It is hard to know what to make of both these reports. The Uwazi report carries the sheen of work done by well funded NGO’s. As a result, its biggest audience will be the Birkenstock sandaled, batik shirt wearing, earnest liberals mostly found eating at the Ethiopian restaurant in Dar, dancing at the Busara festival in Zanzibar and cooing at the Makutano Art Fair. Well meaning as these folks are, they remain positioned at a safe distance from the wananchi. Msemakweli on the other hand seeks to appeal to the Everyman. His tone is shrill and incandescent, his facts pounded out in a langague more apprproiate for a demagogue on a rostrum as opposed to a level headed commentator. Both works will have their supporters even though one senses that both are missing something.

While, the Uwazi report is informative, it is difficult to make any substantial conclusions from it, other than, to put it crudely, that Wilbroad Slaa (Chadema-Karatu) is more talkative in parliament than, say, Estherina Julio Kilasi (CCM-Mbarali). The report claims to document the number of times MPs have intervened in parliamentary debate but nowhere does it talk about the quality of these interventions or how effective these interventions were? As Pernille over at Louder Than Swahili points out, the whole thing reads like ‘just a summary which makes [one] ask more questions’ than reveal anything fundamental about the nature of how our parliamentarians perform at Bunge.

Mr. Msemakweli’s efforts also have their flaws. The accusatory tone of his delivery doesn’t quite give his contributions to public discourse the spirit of high-minded debate. His assertions do not seem to backed up by incontrovertible facts. If a public official claims to have a degree from Oxford University, it would be good for Mr. Msemakweli to say something like, ‘I contacted Oxford and they had no idea who this fellow (or lady) is and here’s the letter from Oxford saying so.’ But that doesn’t look to be how he rolls. So instead those he has accused are likely to sue him for damages which will mean months of wrangling in court but in the end nothing concrete is likely to come out of his proclamations (in fact he has already been the subject of a libel case against him from Deputy Minister for Employment and Youth Development Dr. Makongoro Mahanga for suggesting that the latter had falsified his qualifications. Swahili needed to read the article). Which makes you wonder, why do they do this in the first place?

UPDATE: Swahili Street has an interesting take on Mr. Msemakweli’s little booklet:

There’s an initial prurient interest. Who is in and who is out? Next you want to check his sources, but in most cases he’s trying to prove a negative, so that’s frustrating.

And finally, the medium. Kainerugaba Msemakweli, writer and publisher, is nothing less than a pamphleteer.

So you look to his style. Forthright:

Naudhibitishia umma wa Tanzania kuwa nitapambana nao mpaka mwisho / I swear to all the Tanzanian community that I will struggle with them to the end.

Ninaudhibitishia umma wa Watanzania kuwa kuna siku moja nitafanya mapinduzi katika nchi hii / I swear to all Tanzanians that there will come a day that I’ll make a revolution in this country


Language is interesting. The only English is the final statement above and the sub-title, pictured. So it’s more of a badge of…. learning, I guess, than a means of communication.